Lyal S. Sunga and Nathan C. Walker served as the primary authors of a policy report for the International Development Law Organization titled, Freedom of Religion or Belief and the Law: Current Dilemmas and Lessons Learned, 2014/2016.
The rule of law has often been used to suppress freedom of religion and discriminate against religious minorities. However, history shows that the rule of law can be effectively used to promote mutual understanding of one another’s differences. These four principles explain how the rule of law can protect freedom of religion or belief as a fundamental human right, rather than be used to coerce or harm:
- The rule of law should promote diversity over uniformity.
- Peaceful co-existence can derive from mutual understanding, with the awareness that understanding need not imply agreement.
- States should move beyond the zero-sum game, where one person’s win is another’s loss, to ensure that the rule of law does not put religious rights in opposition to human rights.
- Religious freedom flourishes when liberty is legally defined as a shield that protects people, not a sword that harms them.
These principles, not to be construed as a definitive list, can help move beyond culture wars where religious rites are pitted against civil and human rights. They support the adoption of legal frameworks that transcend the mere tolerance of religious difference toward the active promotion of peaceful co-existence.
About this Report
This research project was commissioned and financed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of the Italian Republic. Dr. Sunga and Walker presented the report at the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva, Switzerland in March 2014.
Responders to the report included:
- Maurizio Enrico Serra, Ambassador of Italy to the United Nations in Geneva
- Irene Khan, Director-General, International Development Law Organization
- Heiner Bielefeldt, UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief
- Silvio Ferrari, Professor of Law and Religion, University of Milan
- Brian J. Grim, President, Religious Freedom & Business Foundation
- Rita Izsák, UN Human Rights Council Independent Expert on minority issues
In November 2016, Nathan C. Walker took part in a panel discussion during the International Development Law Organization’s half-day conference, “Freedom of Religion or Belief: Promoting Peaceful Coexistence Through Human Rights.” The conference, which took place in Rome, was held in conjunction with the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. The other panelists included:
- Saul Meghnagi, representing the Union of Italian Jewish Communities;
- Paolo Naso, coordinator of the Study Commission of the Federation of Evangelical Churches in Italy;
- Yahya Pallavicini, president of the Italian Islamic Religious Community; and
- Giancarlo Penza, Focal Point for International Affairs, Community of Sant’Egidio.
- The discussion was moderated by Silvio Ferrari, professor of law and religion from the University of Milan.